北海道大学 大学院 環境科学院 生物圏科学専攻

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7/25(木)ECCセミナー開催のお知らせ

2019-07-11

Date/Time & Venue

2019年7月25日(木)地球環境科学研究院 管理棟2階会議室       25th July, 2019  Graduate School of Environmental Science, Room E206

【第一部】10:00 – 11:00 植物の形質転換に用いられるアグロバクテリウム属細菌に関する話題

【第二部】16:00 – 17:00 ニューヨークの地下鉄から土壌までの細菌叢の分布に関する話題

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<< Part 1 >>10:00 – 11:00  

Speaker: Dr. Theodore Muth (Brooklyn College, City University of New York)

Title: Agrobacterium tumefaciens Attachment and T-DNA Integration – understanding the “root” to infection of host plants

Summary: While several aspects of A. tumefaciens infection and transformation of plants are well understood, there are questions that remain concerning the attachment of the bacteria to host plants and the integration of T- DNA into the host cell genome. Work from our lab has focused on these questions and has applied novel approaches in an attempt to gain a more thorough understanding of these steps in the infection. 

The standard approach to genetically modify plants relies on Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer foreign DNA (T-DNA) into plant cells where it can become a permanent part of the plant cell’s genome and express engineered traits. While A. tumefaciens transformation of plants has been used extensively, there are aspects of the process that are incompletely understood. To study the timing and factors influencing the location of T-DNA insertions, we used a modified adapter ligation- mediated PCR strategy, coupled with next generation sequencing, to identify T-DNA integration sites into the genome of Arabidopsis.

Previous reports examining T-DNA integration have relied on selective conditions, floral dip transformation, artificial virulence induction or use of cultured suspension plant cells. Our approach attempts to closely match natural infection conditions by using cut Arabidopsis root segments infected with uninduced A. tumefaciens and no selection for T- DNA integration events. A more thorough understanding of T-DNA integration will guide future experiments to develop the techniques to engineer plants more efficiently than is currently possible.

世話人:三輪 京子

<< Part 2>> 16:00 – 17:00

Speaker: Dr. Theodore Muth (Brooklyn College, City University of New York)

Title: The Urban Microbiome ? a new census of the city

Abstract: Our recent work using culture-independent (metagenomic) based strategies to study microbial communities shows an unexpectedly high level of biodiversity in urban microbiomes in a number of sites including parks, waterways, subway systems, and green infrastructure installations. The factors underlying the establishment of these diverse communities are not well understood, but it suggests that urban microbial communities represent a significant unknown element of phylogenetic, genetic, and functional biodiversity. A better understanding of these influences on multiple aspects of biodiversity will inform the design, construction, placement, and maintenance of urban environmental elements (such as green infrastructure) to maximize their ecosystem services.  More fundamentally, our work offers a novel platform for exploration of basic science aspects of dimensions of biodiversity.

世話人:森川正章

北海道大学 大学院 環境科学院 / 地球環境科学研究院

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